CH3D (Curvilinear Hydrodynamics in 3 Dimensions)
CH3D is a finite-difference model that computes three-dimensional velocity, salinity, and temperature fields in bays, estuaries, lakes, and rivers. Two basic versions of CH3D now exist. Both employ generalized curvilinear coordinates in the horizontal. One (CH3DZ) makes computations on a Cartesian (Z) vertical grid, whereas, the other employs a sigma-stretched vertical grid. All processes impacting the circulation of a large water body are modeled. These include turbulence, wind, tides, freshwater inflow, baroclinic forcing, and Coriolis effects. Various versions also contain sediment transport, e.g., CH3DSED (non-cohesive), CH3D-COSED (cohesive), and CH3DZ-FM (fluid mud).
ADCIRC Hydrodynamic Model
The 2- and 3-dimensional long-wave hydrodynamic model ADCIRC was developed for the specific purpose of simulating tidal circulation and tropical and extratropical storm surge propagation over large computational domains such as the entire East Coast of the United States, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, while simultaneously providing high resolution in areas of complex shoreline and bathymetry. The unstructured grid, finite element model represents all pertinent physics of the 3-dimensional equations of motion to include tidal potential, Coriolis, and nonlinear terms of the governing equations. The ADCIRC model also has internal capabilities for solving the 2-dimensional transport equations to simulate the movement and fate of both conservative and non-conservative constituents such as temperature, salinity, cohesive, and noncohesive sediment transport. The model has been extensively used along all coasts of the United States as well as numerous applications overseas.
EST Statistical Life-Cycle Model
The EST is a statistical procedure that simulates life-cycle sequences of non-deterministic multi-parameter systems such as storm events and their corresponding environmental impacts. The approach is based on a "Bootstrap" resampling-with-replacement, interpolation, and subsequent smoothing technique in which random sampling of a finite length database is used to generate a larger database. This procedure is repeated to generate a large population of life-cycle databases. These multiple databases of storm activity are post-processed to compute mean value frequency relationships with standard deviation error estimates. The model has been extensively used in conjunction with coastal process models to generate storm impact versus frequency-of-occurrence relationships. Typical storm impacts have included storm surge elevation, wave runup, dune recession, shoreline erosion, disposal mound erosion, and bridge scour.
SED2D is a finite element model that computes separately the transport of cohesive or non-cohesive sediment in two horizontal dimensions using flows computed by RMA2. SED2D uses the same computational mesh as the RMA2 hydrodynamic model. SED2D can optionally use a variety of functions in transport calculations. Wind and waves can also be considered in calculations.
TABS-MDS is a finite-element numerical hydrodynamic model that computes sub-critical free-surface flows in three dimensions. It has a coupled transport module for computation of salinity and/or temperature for stratified flows. The model was originally developed as RMA10 by Resource Management Associates of Walnut Grove, CA, and enhanced and used extensively by the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, ERDC, USACE. A wide variety of element shapes can be employed to describe system geometries. TABS-MDS can also be used to compute separately the transport of cohesive sediments or coarse-grained sediments. TABS-MDS is used primarily in stratified flow situations. A variety of auxiliary schemes can be use for vertical and horizontal turbulence closure.
FLOWSED is a one-dimensional model for computing unsteady flows in rivers and streams. Initially the model also computed sediment transport, resulting in the name FLOWSED. However, although the name has not been changed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the sediment computations have been removed. FLOWSED is used on a daily basis by the US Army Corps of Engineers to predict flows and stages on the Ohio River and its tributaries.
The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) is software that allows for one-dimensional steady and unsteady flow river hydraulics calculations. The HEC-RAS system contains one-dimensional hydraulic analysis components for: (1) steady flow water surface profile computations; and (2) unsteady flow simulation. In addition to the hydraulic analysis components, the system contains several hydraulic design features that can be applied once water surface profiles are computed.
The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is designed to simulate the precipitation-runoff processes of dendritic watershed systems. It is designed to be applicable in a wide range of geographic areas for solving the widest possible range of problems. This includes large river basin water supply and flood hydrology, and small urban or natural watershed runoff. Hydrographs produced by the program are used directly or in conjunction with other software for studies of water availability, urban drainage, flow forecasting, future urbanization impact, reservoir spillway design, flood damage reduction, floodplain regulation, and systems operation. The modeling system features a completely integrated work environment including a database, data entry utilities, computation engine, and results reporting tools. A graphical user interface allows seamless movement between the different parts of the program. Program functionality and appearance are the same across all supported platforms.
The Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) simulates for extended periods of time the hydrologic, and associated water quality, processes on pervious and impervious land surfaces and in streams and well-mixed impoundments. HSPF uses continuous rainfall and other meteorologic records to compute streamflow hydrographs and pollutographs. HSPF simulates interception soil moisture, surface runoff, interflow, base flow, snowpack depth and water content, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, ground-water recharge, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, pesticides, conservatives, fecal coliforms, sediment detachment and transport, sediment routing by particle size, channel routing, reservoir routing, constituent routing, pH, ammonia, nitrite-nitrate, organic nitrogen, orthophosphate, organic phosphorus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. HSPF is generally used to assess the effects of land-use change, reservoir operations, point or nonpoint source treatment alternatives, flow diversions, etc.
GSSHA (Gridded Surface and Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis) is a physically-based, distributed-parameter, structured grid, hydrologic model that simulates the hydrologic response of a watershed subject to given hydrometeorological inputs. The watershed is divided into cells that comprise a uniform finite difference grid. Processes that occur before, during, and after a rainfall event are calculated for each grid cell and the responses from individual grid cells are then integrated to produce the watershed response. Major components of the model include precipitation distribution, snowfall accumulation and melting, precipitation interception, infiltration, evapo-transpiration, surface water retention, surface runoff routing, channel flow routing, unsaturated zone modeling, saturated groundwater flow, overland sediment erosion, transport and deposition, and channel routing of sediments. Components under development at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS include nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) fate and transport, contaminants (chemicals, solids, and metals) fate and transport, and dynamic plant growth for nutrient and contaminant uptake and biomass generation.
AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model)
AnnAGNPS is a continuous simulation watershed-scale program developed based on the single-event model AGNPS. AnnAGNPS simulates quantities of surface water, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides leaving the land areas and their subsequent travel through the watershed. Runoff quantities are based on runoff curve numbers while sediment is determined by using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Special components are included to handle concentrated sources of nutrients (feedlots and point sources), concentrated sediment sources (gullies), and added water (irrigation). Output is expressed on an event basis for selected stream reaches and as source accounting (contribution to outlet) from land or reach components over the simulation period. The model can be used to evaluate best management practices (BMPs).
SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)
SWAT is a continuous time model that operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The objective of such a model is to predict the long-term impacts of management decisions in large basins and also timing of agricultural practices within a year (i.e., crop rotations, planting and harvest dates, irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates and timing). It can be used to simulate at the basin scale water and nutrients cycle in landscapes whose dominant land use is agriculture. It can also help in assessing the environmental efficiency of BMP’s and alternative management policies. SWAT uses a two-level dissagregation scheme whereby a preliminary sub-basin identification is carried out based on topographic criteria, followed by further discretization using land use and soil type considerations. Areas with the same soil type and land use form a Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU), a basic computational unit assumed to be homogeneous in hydrologic response.
SWMM (Storm Water Management Model)
SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of sub-catchment areas that receive precipitation and generate runoff and pollutant loads. The routing portion of SWMM transports this runoff through a system of pipes, channels, storage/treatment devices, pumps, and regulators. SWMM tracks the quantity and quality of runoff generated within each sub-catchment, and the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. SWMM was first developed in 1971, and has since undergone several major upgrades since then. It continues to be widely used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to storm water runoff, combined sewers, sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas, with many applications in non-urban areas as well. The current edition, Version 5, is a complete re-write of the previous release. Running under Windows, SWMM 5 provides an integrated environment for editing study area input data, running hydrologic, hydraulic and water quality simulations, and viewing the results in a variety of formats.
STFATE (Short-Term FATE)
STFATE is a numerical model that computes the physical fate of dredged material from the moment it is released in open water from split-hull barges or hopper dredges until it is deposited on the bottom. Model output includes the depositional footprint of material on the bottom, time varying suspended sediment concentration in the water column, the impact force when material strikes the bottom, and spatially and time varying bottom shear stresses resulting from the bottom surge of dredged material.
SSFATE (Suspended Sediment FATE)
SSFATE is a model for predicting the far-field fate of dredged material at the dredging site. The basic model was developed by Applied Science Associates under funding through the Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program (DOER) at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) at Vicksburg, MS. Basic model outputs are depositional footprints and time varying suspended sediment concentrations in the water column.
PDFATE (Pipeline Disposal FATE)
PDFATE is a companion model to SSFATE or can be used independently to compute the spreading of pipeline disposed fine-grained sediments in shallow water. PDFATE was developed by the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, ERDC, USACE. Underflow spreading is computed from the point of bottom attachment down slope. Lateral spreading, entrainment of overlying water, and settling and deposition of the underflow are included. Model output includes the underflow footprint if spreading is limited or the underflow trajectory and dimensions if spreading is not limited. In addition, the model computes suspended sediment conditions. These results can then be input to SSFATE for far-field dispersion calculations.
CE-QUAL-RIV1 is a one-dimensional (cross-section averaged), finite difference hydrodynamic and water quality model developed by Ohio State University and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. The model resolves longitudinal variations in hydraulic and water quality characteristics and is applicable where lateral and vertical variations are small. The model can handle branching stream systems with hydraulic control structures. CE-QUAL-RIV1 consists of two codes, hydraulic routing (RIV1H) and water quality (RIV1Q). The hydraulic routing code is applied first to predict flows and stages needed for transport and results are written to a file which is then read by the water quality model. RIV1 can be used to predict transient hydraulic and water quality conditions in streams and rivers with highly unsteady flows, as well as predictions under steady flow conditions. RIV1Q can simulate up to twelve state variables including temperature, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), total organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, total organic phosphorus, dissolved phosphates, algae, dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and coliform bacteria. In addition, the impacts of macrophytes can be simulated.
The CE-QUAL-ICM is a multi-dimensional, finite volume, water-quality-ecological model that was originally developed to study eutrophication and related management strategies for Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The model can be applied in 1, 2, 3, and mixed dimensional representations of surface water systems. The model has been applied to many other systems, including Inland Bays of Delaware, New York Bight, Newark Bay, New York - New Jersey Harbors and Estuaries, Lower Green Bay, Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbors, San Juan Bay and Estuaries, Florida Bay, Lower St. Johns River, and Lake Washington, WA. ICM is typically supplied flow information from a separate hydrodynamic code. ICM can be linked to any type of hydrodynamic model since it uses an unstructured, finite volume grid and solution scheme. ICM can simulate over 40 water quality and biological state variables, including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, various nutrient forms, multiple algal and submerged aquatic vegetation groups, zooplankton, and benthic organisms. The model also has a predictive diagenetic sediment sub-model that interacts with the water column and computes sediment oxygen demand and nutrient fluxes. ICM is considered the state-of-the-art today for science-based, mechanistic modeling of surface water quality and ecological components. A version of ICM has been extended to include toxic chemicals.
CE-QUAL-W2 is a two-dimensional, laterally averaged, finite difference hydrodynamic and water quality model for surface water. Because the model assumes lateral homogeneity, it is best suited for relatively long and narrow water bodies exhibiting longitudinal and vertical water quality gradients. The model can be applied to lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, and practically any type of surface water system where the lateral homogeneity is a reasonable assumption. The model includes branching capabilities and has a vertical coordinate transformation that allows it to also be applied to streams, making it ideal for application to river basins with multiple reservoirs and inter-connecting stream reaches. The model accommodates variable grid spacing (segment lengths and layer thicknesses) so that greater resolution in the grid can be specified where needed. The water quality portion of the model includes temperature, salinity, TDS, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, the major eutrophication-related variables and nutrients, and multiple algal groups. The bottom sediment compartment stores settled particles, releases nutrients to the water column, and exerts sediment oxygen demand. W2 has been used extensively for reservoirs around the United States and world, and is considered the preferred model of choice for reservoir water quality. The model can accurately simulate reservoir density-dependent flow and stratification, as well as temperature and water quality conditions.
WASP (Version 7)
WASP7 predicts water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for varying pollution management decisions. It is a dynamic compartment-modeling program for aquatic systems, including the water column and the underlying benthos. WASP7 allows the user to investigate 1, 2, and 3 dimensional systems, and a variety of pollutant types, including conventional pollutants (nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD, sediment oxygen demand, algae, and periphyton) and their effect on DO, organic chemicals, metals, mercury, pathogens, and temperature. It can be linked with hydrodynamic and sediment models to provide flows, depths, velocities, temperature, salinity, and sediment fluxes.
Computational Hydraulics and Transport LLC. 2006.